Dr. Olesen is the founder and co-chair of the Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup in Copenhagen, Denmark.

He received his MD and doctorate at the university of Copenhagen and clinical education at associated hospitals and at Queen Square And Cornell. He has published 33 books and over 500 original scientific articles in peer reviewed journals. He has supervised over 50 dissertations  He is one of the founders of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and of the European Brain Council. He has received several Danish and International awards, honorary doctorates and is an honorary member of British, German, French and other neurological societies. He gives one or more invited/named lectureships every year.

He has studied almost all aspects of migraine and other headaches. Current focus is on genetics and on animal and human models.